Please bear the little pain to read regardless of the length. It’s a story and can’t make it shorter than this because this story is in a form of a books of hundreds of pages which has been summarized to this so please let’s learn about our heroes. If you can’t read now just save to your notes app and read when you are free in shaa Allah.
BismilLaahir Rahmaanir Raheem.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO ISLAM DURING THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD SALLALLAHU ALAIYHI WASSALLAM LIFETIME.
Son-in-law of our Prophet Muhammad S.A.W.
Because of his conversion to Islam, Uthman R.A had to separate from his wives, who refused to accept Islam. He was grieved and distressed by this, but his love for Islam was of more value to him. The Prophet S.A.W was so impressed by his sacrifice, that he married his second daughter, Ruqayya, to Uthman R.A. It is said that Uthman and Ruqayya made a unique pair, as Uthman was the most handsome person amongst the men, whereas Ruqayya was the most beautiful amongst the women. Allahu Akbar.
Marriage to the Prophet’s daughter had elevated the bond shared between them. However, the marriage was short lived. Ruqayya was taken ill at a time when the Muslims went to war at Badr and subsequently passed away when the Holy Prophet S.A.W and the Muslims were fighting the Quraish at the battlefield of Badr.
Deeply grieved by the loss, Uthman was asked by the Prophet to marry his other daughter, Umm Kulthum. Allahu Akbar. When she too passed away six years later, the Prophet noted Uthman’s grief in his manner of walking and expression on his face and said: “Had we a third daughter, surely, we would have given her in marriage to you.” What an endorsement when the Prophet of Allah considers you worthy of marrying his own daughters!
It has been said that marriage to two daughters of the Prophet S.A.W had earned Uthman the nickname Dhun-Noorayn (the one with the two lights) as there was no one else had the privilege of having the Prophet S.A.W as a father-in-law twice over.
THE FIRST MIGRATION
The series of persecution started in the fourth year of Prophethood and accelerated and worsened by the day. In the fifth year it began to seem intolerable for the Muslims and Allah saw to this when He made it known in Surat Az-Zumar that it is time for the religion to spread further afield with the migration of a few Muslims.
“Good is for those who do good in this world, and Allah’s earth is spacious. Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning.” [Qur’an 39:10]
In Rajab of the fifth year of the revelation, a group of twelve men and four women, including Uthman and his wife Ruqayya, left for Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The Prophet S.A.W had directed this small group to migrate for he wanted to preserve the Muslim community from increasing belligerence. He chose Abyssinia as much had been heard of the Christian ruler, Al Najashi, who did not allow any form of persecution in his land.
Uthman’s migration to Abyssinia, while escaping the harassment by the Quraish and the oppression in Mecca, was also a means for him to lead by example, the peaceful life of worship to Allah. It has been said that migration from life to life, from existence to existence is a journey to Allah with new provisions as one concedes what is old with its sanctities and glories. For Uthman the migration had strengthened his good characteristics and made them more effective and elegant. It was primarily a migration of spirit.
OPPRESSION IN MECCA
When Uthman returned to Mecca he discovered that the Muslims had remained oppressed and in fact their living conditions had worsened. The Quraish had decided to cut all social, economic and familial relations with Muslims and Bani Hashim (the Prophet’s SAW clan). Banishing them to a valley and depriving them of a reasonable living, the Muslims did not even have sufficient food and water. Uthman ordered his agents to buy food and secretly supply the Muslims.
THE SECOND MIGRATION AND CONTINUED HARDSHIP IN YATHRIB (MEDINA)
Again, the Prophet had asked his companions and other Muslims to migrate, this time to Medina, to save themselves from enduring further evil plots of the Quraish. Among the emigrants to Medina were Uthman and Ruqayya.
The Muslims in Medina were poor as they had left their worldly possessions in Mecca. Much depended on the Ansar (dwellers of Medina) to adopt a Muhajireen (emigrants from Mecca) to support them in maintaining their livelihood and for survival. A Jewish trader had taken advantage of the need for the city dwellers’ survival when he sold water (a precious commodity indeed) at a very high price. Uthman took the initiative to relieve them of such high expenses. He offered to buy the well at Rawmah from the Jew but was only allowed to purchase half of it. Uthman then told the Muslims to purchase enough water for two days each time it was his turn to sell water, thereby avoiding purchase of water on the second day when it was the Jew’s turn to use the well. The Jew was then unable to get any buyers and eventually had to sell his share to Uthman. The well then overflowed with its sweet water and provided the people of Medina with water at no price or account.
Uthman’s Generosity Continues
When the number of converts to Islam increased in Medina, the space available for them at the mosque in Medina decreased. The Prophet SAW had hoped that perhaps one of his Companions could help with the purchase of the neighbouring area to facilitate the expansion of the mosque. Uthman was only too willing to oblige and proceeded to the owners of this area with an offer to purchase. The Prophet SAW had said, “Who will buy the land of so and so add it to the mosque in return for something good for him in Paradise?”
Again, when the Prophet SAW returned from their victorious campaign in Mecca, he sought to expand the area of the sacred mosque. He suggested that the owners of the home beside the mosque to donate it but they did not, saying that they had nothing else to their name and no other means of finding another home. For the third time Uthman came forward, purchased a house for the owners with an even larger one than they had given up.
During the rule of Abu Bakr, the Muslims had undergone great hardship and one of them was the need for food. As a merchant Uthman was due to receive a substantial delivery of food and other goods from Damascus but he had chosen to give up the entire caravan to the poor to help them survive the harsh conditions.
BAY’A AL RIDWAN
On the 1st of Dhul Qa’idah, in the sixth year of Hijrah, the Prophet with 1,400 Muslims from Medina began their journey to Mecca to perform their pilgrimage. As they journeyed, they heard that the Quraish would not allow them to enter the city. Upon reaching Hudaibiyah, the Prophet sent three messengers to the Meccans to convince them to allow the pilgrimage as that was their sole intention. Each returned unsuccessful. The Prophet then sent Uthman to cheer the believing men and women still in Mecca with the tidings that Allah was about to make their religious victorious.
Uthman entered Mecca under the protection of Abban bin Sayeed Umwi and conveyed the message. The Quraish offered him the opportunity to make tawaf but he refused for as long as the Prophet had been prevented to do so. The Quraish then decided to detain Uthman, perhaps wanting to ensure they had a “card to play” in negotiations with the Muslims but this resulted in rumours that he had suffered death in the hands of the Quraish.
The death of a messenger is often deemed as a declaration of war and the Prophet went about to prepare for a confrontation in Mecca. The Prophet SAW called upon his followers to take an oath that they will remain on the battlefield and to fight unto death, that they would not flee and will stand or fall together to avenge Uthman’s death. With one hand on the other, the Prophet said, “this is the pledge on behalf of Uthman”. The pledge had pleased Allah but thankfully it need not be acted upon for Uthman emerged soon after. Allah revealed a verse in Surat Al-Fath referring to the sanctity of the covenant:
“Verily, those who give Bay’ah (pledge) to you (o Muhammad) they are giving Bay’ah to Allah. The Hand of Allah is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm; and whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.” [Qur’an 48:10]
The Expedition to Tabuk
The ninth year after Hijrah saw the Prophet SAW preparing an army for battle with the Romans who were plotting to disrupt the State of Islam. With limited resources and the near impossible task of adequately equipping the army in the middle of a very hot summer, the Prophet sought the assistance of his companions to donate as much as they could. Uthman immediately obliged and was credited to have provided nine hundred and forty camels along with sixty horses for the Tabuk expedition. He had also given ten thousand dinars to the Prophet SAW to ensure that the army was well equipped. The Prophet SAW remarked, “Whatever Uthman does from this day onward, he will suffer no harm.” Allahu Akbar. Uthman ibn Affan was elected the third Caliph after the passing of Umar bin Al-Khattab. The reaction to the election of Uthman was favourable. After the stern rule of Umar, the people welcomed the mild rule of Uthman.
After receiving the pledge of allegiance, he stood up and said: “This world implied vanities, so let not the world mislead you and let no deceiver seduce you. Treat this world as Allah deals with it, and seek for the hereafter, for Allah gives an example of this world when He said: “Set forth to the similitude of the life of this world: it is like the rain which we send down from the skies: the earth’s vegetation absorbs it, but soon it becomes dry stubble, which the winds do scatter: it is (only) Allah who prevails over all things. Wealth and sons are allurements of the life of this world: but the things that endure, good deed, are best in the sight of thy Lord, as rewards, and best as (the foundation for) hopes.
During Uthman’s rule, the characteristics of Abu Bakr’s and Umar’s caliphate, comprehensive justice for all, and humane policies where adhered to. He continued to strive in the Cause of Allah and the expansion of Islam continued.
Collection of the Noble Qur’an.
Uthman was deeply attached to the Holy Qur’an. Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami narrated how he learned it from the Prophet S.A.W and his words indicate how he greatly loved to live with the Book of Allah. Those who taught the Qur’an ֠such as Uthman ibn Affan, Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood and others ֠told us that when they learned ten verses from the Prophet S.A.W they would not go beyond them until they had learned the knowledge contained in them and how to apply it in deed. They said: So we learned the Qur’an and knowledge and its application together. Hence they would spend a while to memorise a surah.
Reports had surfaced that some Muslims were disputing the Qur’anic text, each claiming theirs to be the authentic version. Furthermore, with the conquests of many nations and the acceptance of Islam by many different people with various languages and varying Arabic dialects, Uthman was keen to maintain the language of the Qur’an as it had been revealed from Allah to the Prophet. In the twenty-fifth year of Hijrah Uthman ordered the collection of all the copies of the Qur’an available and chose to compile the Qur’an in a standard format in the dialect of the Quraish. Uthman entrusted Zaid bin Thabit, himself an authority on Qur’anic text, to work with other trustworthy companions of the Prophet.
Upon completion of the whole Qur’an, he then ordered four true copies to be made. Each one was sent to each major region of the empire and ordered them to destroy any other copies. Thus the standard copy of the Qur’anic text came into being. The Al-Mushaf Al-Uthmani is considered the master copy of the Qur’anic text from which all subsequent authentic copies of the Qur’an have been made.
THE REBELLION AND THE END.
Uthman ruled for twelve years. As the Islamic state expanded greatly under his rule, so did the pool of hypocrites who had pretended to accept Islam but sought to disrupt and destroy the state. Rebels had gathered thousands to revolt against Uthman’s rule.
The Jews and the Magians, taking advantage of dissatisfaction among the people, began conspiring against Uthman, and publicly aired their complaints and grievances. They gained sympathy and soon it was difficult to distinguish friend from foe. By that time Uthman was 82. He did not expect a revolt and was ultimately reluctant in having to see bloodshed within his state.
A rebellion in Kufah and Egypt seemed destined to create turmoil within the state. Vicious allegations abounded and were rampantly circulated against Uthman. In keeping this summary brief, we will not be examining these in detail but suffice to say all of these accusations were baseless or out of context.
Based on false accusations, a group of armed rebels marched to Medina and was met by Ali ibn Abi Talib at the outskirts, who explained the gravity of the error and the falsehood of the rumours to them. The plea fell on deaf ears, and they went ahead to confront Uthman and put his household under a long siege. Ali bin Abi Talib sent his sons Al-Hasan and Al-Husain along with several others to defend Uthman but they refused to fight the rebels for fear of causing death of Muslims.
The rebels demanded that Uthman abdicate, and indeed some of the Companions advised him to do so. He replied “By Allah, I would not be the first successor of the Messenger of Allah S.A.W to lead his nation to bloodshed and would not depart from the homeland of my migration, or the neighbourhood of the Messenger of Allah S.A.W as long as I am living.”
Muslim ibn Sa’eed, a freed slave of Uthman, reported that one day during the long siege, Uthman freed twenty slaves. Thereafter he said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah S.A.W in a dream, as well as Abu Bakr and Umar, and they said to me be patient, for you are going to break your fast with us soon.’ “Then he requested for a copy of the Qur’an and he opened it in front of him.
The rebels then broke into Uthman’s house by burning down the door and entering when none of the Companions were with him. The first assassin’s sword struck Uthman while the Qur’an was still in his hand.
Ibn Asakir reported that when Uthman received the first blow, he said “Bismillah, tawakaltu ala Allah” (In the name of Allah, and upon Allah I do rely). When his blood poured forth, he said “Subhanallah Al-Adhim” (Glory be to Allah, the Majestic).
Uthman breathed his last breath on Friday afternoon as a shaheed Alhamdulillah.
The rebels, wanting to loot his wealth, opened his cabinet and found a box in which there was a note that read:
“This is the testament of Uthman before Allah: In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. Uthman bin Affan bears witness that there is no true deity but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger. Paradise is true and Hell is true, and Allah will resurrect everyone on the Day of Judgment, for Allah will never break His promise.”
The power of the rebels was so great that Uthman’s body lay unburied, kept inside his house for three days until the people of Medina could bury it, still in his blood-stained clothes, without a shroud.
Thus ended the life of another great martyr and hero of Islam. He is one of the ten companions of the Prophet foretold by him to be among the dwellers of Paradise.
May Allah be pleased with Uthman for the great services he rendered to Islam and Muslims. It was enough for Uthman to be praised by the Prophet S.A.W, “Uthman is bashful to the extent that angels get bashful when they see him.” Allahu Akbar. In shaa Allah tomorrow we Will study that our 4th Imam Ali R.A. May Allah grant us Jannat to meet these blessed companions of the Prophet. Aameen.