How Do You Get HIV or AIDS?

Aside

HOW DO YOU GET AIDS?
The terms “HIV” and “AIDS” can be confusing because both terms refer to the same disease. However, “HIV” refers to the virus itself, and “AIDS” refers to the late stage of HIV infection, when an HIV-infected person’s immune system is severely damaged and has difficulty fighting diseases and certain cancers. Before the development of certain medications, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. But today, most people who are HIV-positive do not progress to AIDS. That’s because if you have HIV and you takeantiretroviral therapy(ART) consistently, you can keep the level of HIV in your body low. This will help keep your body strong and healthy and reduce the likelihood that you will ever progress to AIDS. It will also help lower your risk of transmitting HIV to others.

HIV is spread mainly by:
*.Having sex with someone who has HIV. In general:
*.Anal sex (penis in the anus of a man or woman) is the highest-risk sexual behavior. Receptive anal sex (“bottoming”) is riskier than insertive anal sex (“topping”).
*.Vaginal sex (penis in the vagina) is the second highest-risk sexual behavior.
*.Having multiple sex partners or having sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk of HIV infection through sex.
*.Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment (“works”) used to prepare injection drugs with someone who has HIV.
Less commonly, HIV may be spread by:
*.Being born to an infected mother. HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
*.Being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers.
*.Receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV. This risk is extremely small because of rigorous testing of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissues.
*.Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth mixes with food while chewing, and is very rare.
*.Being bitten by a person with HIV. Each of the very small number of documented cases has involved severe trauma with extensive tissue damage and the presence of blood. There is no risk of transmission if the skin is not broken.
*.Oral sex—using the mouth to stimulate the penis, vagina, or anus (fellatio, cunnilingus, and rimming). Giving fellatio (mouth to penis oral sex) and having the person ejaculate (cum) in your mouth is riskier than other types of oral sex.
*.Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids. These reports have also been extremely rare.
*.Deep, open-mouth kissing if the person with HIV has sores or bleeding gums and blood is exchanged. HIV is not spread through saliva. Transmission through kissing alone is extremely rare.

Certain body fluids from an HIV-infected person can transmit HIV.
These body fluids are:
*.Blood
*.Semen (cum)
*.Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)
*.Rectal fluids
*.Vaginal fluids
*.Breast milk
These body fluids must come into contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into your bloodstream (by a needle or syringe) for transmission to possibly occur. Mucous membranes are the soft, moist areas just inside the openings to your body. They can be found inside the rectum, the vagina or the opening of the penis, and the mouth.

HIV is NOT spread by:
*.Air or water
*.Insects, including mosquitoes or ticks
*.Saliva, tears, or sweat
*.Casual contact, like shaking hands, hugging or sharing dishes/drinking glasses
*.Drinking fountains
*.Toilet seats
HIV is not spread through the air and it does not live long outside the human body.
Having an undetectable viral load greatly lowers the chance that a person living with HIV can transmit the virus to a partner, but there is still some risk. “Viral load” refers to the amount of HIV in an infected person’s blood. An “undetectable viral load” is when the amount of HIV in a person’s blood is so low that it can’t be measured.antiretroviral therapy(ART) reduces a person’s viral load, ideally to an undetectable level, when taken consistently and correctly. However, a person with HIV can still potentially transmit HIV to a partner even if they have an undetectable viral load.

Wani likita ya kamu da Ebola a Najeriya

Aside

Hukumomi a Najeriya sun ce likitan da ya duba dan kasar Liberiyan nan mai dauke da cutar Ebola a jihar Lagos ya kamu da cutar.
Hakan na nufin shi ne mutum na biyu da aka tabbatar ya kamu cutar a Legas, wanda shi ne birni mafi yawan mutane a yammacin Afrika.
Ministan lafiya Onyebuchi Chukwu, wanda ya tabbatar da likitan na dauke da cutar, ya ce ana can ana yi masa magani, kuma a yanzu mutane 70 da aka yi amannar cewa sun yi mu’amala da dan kasar Liberiyar, ana kula da su inda takwas daga cikinsu aka kebe su.
An kuma dauki jinin karin wasu uku da alamu suka nuna suna dauke da cutar, domin yin gwaji.

An kirkiro wani Tabarau mai aiki da Kwamfuta domin taimakawa masu gani kadan-kadan.

Aside

Masu bincike a jami’ar Oxford da ke Ingila sun ce sun cimma wata gagarumar nasara wajen kirkiro wani tabarau mai aiki da kwamfuta domin taimkawa masu gani kadan-kadan.
Tabaran ya kan sa mutum ya ga mutanen da ke kusa da kuma wurin da mutum ya ke sosai.
Cibiyar makafi ta Birtaniya ta ce tabaran zai zama “Mai matukar amfani ga masu larurar idanu.”
A karon farko tabaran ya sa wasu masu matsalar gani sun ga karen da ke musu jagora.
Lyn Oliver mai shekaru 70 na da matsalar ido da ke kara tabarbarewa, kuma hakan yasa bata gani sosai.
Tana iya ganin gilmawar mutum ko wasu abubuwa, amma karenta mai suna Jess ne ke yi mata jagora.
Lyn na daya daga cikin ‘yan Burtaniya kusan miliyan biyu da ke fama da matsalar idanu, wanda hakan ke shafar yadda suke gudanar da rayuwarsu ta yau da kullum.
Sai dai masu bincike na jami’ar Oxford sun kirkiro wani tabarau da zai inganta ganin irin wadannan mutane.
An sanya wa gilashin wata kamara ta musamman ta 3D kuma wata kwamfuta na tattara abubuwan da ta gani nan da nan ta tura ga gilashin tabaran, hakan na sa mutane da abubuwan da ke wuri su fito karara.
Lyn ta gwada tabaran wanda ake inganta shi, kuma gwajin baya-bayan nan na da muhimmanci sosai, domin ta ga abubuwa karara sosai fiye da a gwajin baya.
Dr. Stephen Hicks na jami’ar Oxford kuma wanda ke jagorantar aiki a kan tabaran ya ce, yanzu tabaran ya wuce matsayin bincike za a fara amfani da shi a gida.

An gano Rashin Tsaro a Kayan Gida Masu amfani da Yanar Gizo (Internet).

Aside

Kamfanin HP ya gano cewa za a iya kutse a cikin da yawa daga cikin kayayyakin da ke amfani da intanet a gidajen jama’a.
A kan wannan matsalar HP ke ganin ko ya dace a ce irin wadannan kayayyaki na gida sun kunshi muhimman bayanai na sirri na mutum ?
Sashen kula da tsaro na kamfanin na HP ya gudanar da bincike a kan wasu kayayyaki goma da ake amfani da su da intanet.
Wani kwararre kan sha’anin tsaro mai zaman kansa ya ce abin da aka gano abu ne mai tayar da hankali.
Kamfanin na HP bai bayyana sunayen kamfanonin da kayan nasu ke da wannan matsala ba, amma ya nuna kayayyaki goma da ya gudanar da binciken a kansu.
Talabijin mai komai-da-ruwanka da kyamarar jikin kwamfuta da fanfon ban ruwa a lambu da mukullin kofa, da na’urar kuwwa a gida da mabudin garejin mota da sauransu.
Damuwar daya daga cikin wadanda suka yi binciken, ita ce takwas daga cikin kayayyakin da aka yi gwajin a kansu ba sa bukatar mutum ya sa musu lambobin budewa masu sarkakiya ko wahalar ganowa.
Ya ce da dama daga cikinsu ana amfani da lambobi kamar 1234 ko 123456 ne kawai a bude su, kuma a gano bayanan mai amfani da su.
Masana na ganin cewa shin wajibi ne wadannan kayayyaki su tattara bayanan masu amfani da su, kafin su yi aiki ?
A farkon wannan watan, wani kamfanin harkokin tsaro ya bayyana cewa, kwan lantarkin da ke amfani da wi-fi da wani kamfanin Australia, Lifx ya yi, yana bayyana sunan mai amfani da shi da kuma mabudinsa, idan mai kutse ya yi amfani da wata na’ura da ta yi sojan gona kamar wani kwan lantarkin.
A shekarar da ta wuce, sai da kamfanin LG yayi gyara a kan talabijin din kamfanin mai komai-da-ruwanka, bayan da wani mutum ya gano cewa tana nazarin yanayin lokacin da yake kallo, kuma ta yada a intanet karara.

Kadangaren Dinosaurs mai gashi na yaduwa. wannan Dinosaurs yana da gashi a jikinsa, da dogayen kafafu, masu dauke da farata zako-zako

Aside

Wani binciken kimiyya ya gano cewa dukkan jikin kadangarun Dinosaurs na da gashi a jikinsu, ko kuma gashin zai iya fitowa a jikinsu.
An gano hakan ne a jikin kashin wani kadangaren Dinosaurs mai shekaru miliyan 150 a Siberia, wanda ya bayyana cewa ana iya samun kadangaren mai gashi a jikinsa fiye da yadda aka yi tsammani a baya.
Jagoran binciken ya shaidawa BBC cewa, sabon binciken da suka gudanar ya sauya baki dayan tunaninsu akan kadangaren na Dinosaurs.
An dai wallafa wannan bincike ne a jaridar mujallar Science.
Kadangaren Dinosaurs da aka yi binciken akan sa mai suna Kulindadromeus Zabaikalius ya na da tsahon mita 1, da dan gajeren hanci, da kuma dogayen kafafu, da gajerun kafada ka na kuma da farata guda biyar masu karfin gaske.
Hakoran sa kuma ya nuna yadda ya ke da karfin cin tsirrai.
Kawo yanzu dai an gano irin wannan kadangaren Dinosaurs mai gashi a jikinsa ne a kasar China, daga dabbobin da suke cin nama wadanda ake kira Theropods a turance.
Bincike na baya-bayan anan da aak gudanar a kasar Rasha, an gano shi ne daga a wurin kadangarun Dinosaurs da aka killace wadanda ba sa cin komai sai tsirrai, wanda hakan yake a kusan dukkannin kadangaru irinsu.